Simple 12v To 220v Inverter Circuit

5 min read Jun 26, 2024
Simple 12v To 220v Inverter Circuit

Simple 12V to 220V Inverter Circuit

An inverter is an electronic device that converts direct current (DC) power from a battery or solar panel to alternating current (AC) power, which is suitable for household appliances. In this article, we will discuss a simple 12V to 220V inverter circuit that can be used to power small appliances.

Components Required

  • Transformer: A step-up transformer with a primary voltage rating of 12V and a secondary voltage rating of 220V.
  • Transistors: 2 x NPN transistors (e.g., 2N3055 or BD139)
  • Diodes: 2 x 1N4148 diodes
  • Resistors: 2 x 1kΩ resistors, 1 x 2kΩ resistor, and 1 x 4.7kΩ resistor
  • Capacitors: 1 x 100nF capacitor and 1 x 100μF electrolytic capacitor
  • Oscillator: A 555 timer IC (optional)

Circuit Diagram

The circuit diagram for the simple 12V to 220V inverter is shown below:

Without Oscillator

  +-----------+
  |          |
  |  12V DC  |
  |          |
  +-----------+
           |
           |
           v
  +-----------+
  |          |
  |  Transformer  |
  |  (12V Primary) |
  +-----------+
           |
           |
           v
  +-----------+
  |          |
  |  Transistor  |
  |  (NPN)      |
  +-----------+
           |
           |
           v
  +-----------+
  |          |
  |  Diode     |
  |  (1N4148)  |
  +-----------+
           |
           |
           v
  +-----------+
  |          |
  |  Capacitor  |
  |  (100nF)    |
  +-----------+
           |
           |
           v
  +-----------+
  |          |
  |  Resistor  |
  |  (1kΩ)     |
  +-----------+
           |
           |
           v
  +-----------+
  |          |
  |  Output    |
  |  (220V AC)  |
  +-----------+

With Oscillator (555 Timer IC)

  +-----------+
  |          |
  |  12V DC  |
  |          |
  +-----------+
           |
           |
           v
  +-----------+
  |          |
  |  Transformer  |
  |  (12V Primary) |
  +-----------+
           |
           |
           v
  +-----------+
  |          |
  |  555 Timer  |
  |  IC         |
  +-----------+
           |
           |
           v
  +-----------+
  |          |
  |  Transistor  |
  |  (NPN)      |
  +-----------+
           |
           |
           v
  +-----------+
  |          |
  |  Diode     |
  |  (1N4148)  |
  +-----------+
           |
           |
           v
  +-----------+
  |          |
  |  Capacitor  |
  |  (100nF)    |
  +-----------+
           |
           |
           v
  +-----------+
  |          |
  |  Resistor  |
  |  (1kΩ)     |
  +-----------+
           |
           |
           v
  +-----------+
  |          |
  |  Output    |
  |  (220V AC)  |
  +-----------+

Working Principle

The working principle of the simple 12V to 220V inverter circuit is as follows:

  1. The 12V DC power supply is connected to the primary winding of the transformer.
  2. The transformer steps up the voltage to 220V AC.
  3. The AC voltage is then rectified using the two diodes.
  4. The rectified voltage is filtered using the capacitor and resistor network.
  5. The output voltage is then available at the output terminals.

Advantages and Disadvantages

Advantages

  • Simple and low-cost design
  • Can be used to power small appliances
  • Easy to build and assemble

Disadvantages

  • Low power output (up to 100W)
  • Not suitable for heavy loads
  • May not be efficient for high-power applications

Conclusion

The simple 12V to 220V inverter circuit is a cost-effective and easy-to-build solution for powering small appliances. However, it has limited power output and may not be suitable for heavy loads. For higher power applications, a more complex and efficient inverter design may be